- Many jazz musicians started making short films to go with their songs.
- Bob Dylan filmed "Subterranean homesick blues" and it was wildly credited as one of the first modern music videos.
- Televisions took off and more people were getting them in their households.
- It was recognised that television was the best thing to promote artists.
- Focus was on creating short promos.
- Camera movements may accompany movements of the performer.
- Close-ups predominate because... The screen is small so by using a close up its easier and clearer as to what is going on. It creates intimacy for the viewer and it also shows people and creates attention for the singer.
- Fast cut montage - Can go along with the pace of the music.
- Long take, no cuts.
- Green screen or blue screen = Chroma-key.
Goodwin's music video analysis...
- Demonstrates genre characteristics ( Rock -stage performance. Pop - Dance routine.)
- There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals.
- There is a relationship between music and visuals.
- Record labels include the need for lots of close-ups of the artist.
- Frequently reference to notion of looking (Screens within screens, telescopes, etc.) and particular voyeuristic treatment of the female body.
- Often inter-textual reference (to film, TV programs, other music videos etc.)
"incorporating, raiding and reconstructing" - John Stuarts.